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#1 x2p


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Posted 17 January 2006 - 02:51 PM

This topic is meant solely for informational replies, questions can be asked the normal way. Answers to those questions might be merged into this topic.

This topic is also usable for 64bit Linux offcourse.

Handy Linux User Commands

represents one directory higher
cat {filename}
display file contents
cat stuff1 stuff2 allStuff
combine files
cat someStuff allStuff
append to a file
cd dirName
go into the directory dirName
chmod [permission mode] {file}
change the permission of a file (4=read, 2=write, 1=execute for user/group/all)
chown {user} {file}
change the owner of a file
clear the terminal
cp {file1} {file2}
copy file1 to file2
print current date and time
find someStuff
locate a file or directory
finger {user}
get some info about a user
display some stats about memory usage
ftp {hostname}
connect to an ftp server
gunzip {file.gz}
extract contents of gzipped compressed files
display the hostname of the computer
kill [ID]
terminate a process
less {file}
view file in terminal with ability to scroll up and down
ln {sourceName} {destDirectory}
create symbolic link to a file
locate {file}
locate a file from a database maintained by the computer
login to the computer
lpr {file}
sends a file to the print spooler
list the contents of the current directory
ls {directory}
list the contents of a given directory
man {program}
display manual pages for a program
mkdir {directory}
create a directory
more {file}
view file in terminal with ability to scroll down
mv {source} {target}
move a file, also used for renaming.
passwd {user}
change a user's password
pico {file}
open a file in the pico text editor
print the full pathname of the current directory
quota {user}
display the disk quota allocated to a user
rm {file}
delete a file
rmdir {directory}
delete a directory
rm -rf {anything}
forcefully delete something (like a directory, recursively)
the standard Unix shell, bash
ssh {hostname}
open an ssh session
switch to the superuser's (root's) identity
su {user}
switch to another user's identity
tail {file}
print the last 10 lines of a file
telnet {hostname}
open a telnet session
touch {file}
update the access time and last modified time for a file to the current time and date
uname -a
print system information
vi {file}
open a file in the vi or vim text editor
who am i
gives info about the current user
who -uH
gives info and idle times for all users

Handy Linux Sys Admin Commands

shuts down the machine (Also shutdown or init 6
mount /mnt/floppy
mounts the floppy fs
mount /mnt/cdrom
mounts the cd-rom fs (where /mnt is /media in e.g. SuSE)
shutdown -r "now"
restarts the machine (also possible nowadays is reboot
umount {mountedLocation}
unmounts a filesystem
update file database used by locate command

~Made the list an easier read

#2 x2p


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Posted 26 January 2006 - 08:42 PM

Wireless cards can be quite a bit of trouble for Linux users. Very few manufacturers have any interest in writing Linux drivers or releasing information about their cards so other people can use this information to write Linux drivers. There is a small selection of Linux-compatible Wi-Fi (wireless networking) cards, but they tend to be rather expensive. Worse, you don't get very much choice about which wireless networking chipset is built-in when you buy a laptop.

ndiswrapper is a project that provides a kernel module to load Windows NDIS wireless card drivers under Linux. NDIS stands for Network Driver Interface Specification and is the Windows/DOS driver interface. The ndiswrapper module wraps around this driver, acting as a translator between it and the Linux kernel.

You can use ndiswrapper to get a great deal of cards working that don't have a native Linux driver. There is a lot of information on the ndiswrapper wiki (discussion site) about various card and driver combinations that work well, but it often works with other cards too. There is no guarantee it will work perfectly with your card, however. Although ndiswrapper has become many orders of magnitude more stable over time, it still can very rarely crash or lock up your Linux system. You can visit the ndiswrapper wiki here.

Installing ndiswrapper is not for point-and-click users. It requires using the command line and being able to locate drivers and specialised instructions for your card. If this sounds like something you'd have difficulty doing, ask a geek to help. Your local Linux Users Group is a great place to find a friendly Linux guru who can help you with this.

Installing ndiswrapper
Many Linux distributions have binary packages for ndiswrapper. Use the package updating tool for your distribution to make sure you have the latest version available installed. Some distributions separate out the driver and the command-line tools into two packages, so check to make sure that you have ndiswrapper-utils or any similarly named package installed if typing ndiswrapper at the command line as root results in command not found.
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Figure 1. Installing ndiswrapper

Identifying Your Card
To install and set up ndiswrapper, you need to know the chipset of your wireless card and find a suitable Windows driver to use. Then, you need to install ndiswrapper either from a package or by compiling the sources.

The chipset of your card differs from the brand or model. It refers to the actual chips inside the card that control its function. So a planet-, belkin- or genius-branded card could all have the same chipset and be able to use the same driver. Some manufacturers even have been known to use different chipsets in cards with the same model number.

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Figure 2. The KDE Info Center

As shown in Figure 2, I'm using the KDE Info Center (kinfocenter) to get information about my devices. Your wireless card should show up under the PCI section, regardless of whether the card is built-in to your computer or is a PCMCIA card. The last item in the list in Figure 2 is my wireless card. According to this, it has a Realtek chipset, model 8180l, revision 20. This is a little cryptic, but all we need to do with this information is match it up to a driver that works with ndiswrapper.

If you don't have a graphical tool like the KDE Info Center at your disposal, you can get the same information from the command line using the command lspci. If your shell tells you the command is not found, try specifying the full path--often /sbin/lspci.

Armed with the knowledge of what chipset your card is, the next port of call is the ndiswrapper wiki's card list.

Find the Driver
In some cases, you may have the original Windows driver disk. You can use this disk instead of downloading a driver, although you're likely to get a more recent driver if you download one. The ndiswrapper wiki page says that most people have had success using the Windows XP driver from the chipset manufacturer's Web site. Once you've located a driver for your card, copy it from your driver CD/floppy or download it to disk and extract it.

If your driver is in the form of a Windows self-extracting zip file with a .EXE extension, it's possible that Linux unzip can still extract it. Try using unzip file.exe from the command line. Locate the driver installation instructions file. It will have the extension INF. If there is more than one of these files, the ndiswrapper wiki will often point you to which one you should use.

This step requires some command-line use. Open up a terminal and change to the directory containing your drivers. If you use Konqueror as your file manager, you can bring up a terminal in the directory you're already in by using Window→Open Terminal Emulator. This lets you see a graphical representation of the current directory in the top pane, and use the command line in the bottom pane. You need root privileges for this step. Either use the su - command to change to the root user, or if you have your system set up for it, use sudo.

# ndiswrapper -i filename.INF
This causes ndiswrapper to create a configuration directory in /etc to hold the driver file and configuration pertaining to the driver and install the driver to it. Now if you issue the command:

# ndiswrapper -l
you should see something like the following:

dessa@holly:~> /usr/sbin/ndiswrapper -l
net8180 driver present, hardware present
To load the module, type modprobe ndiswrapper as the root user. To set up the ndiswrapper module to be loaded on boot, type:

# ndiswrapper -m
This writes out a line in a system configuration file--usually /etc/modprobe.conf--to tell the system that your wireless card uses the ndiswrapper driver.

Set Up Networking
Now that you have ndiswrapper installed and a driver for your card, you should be able to set it up using the networking tools that come with your distribution. Here, I'm using SUSE 9.3, but these settings would apply no matter what distribution I'm using.

The ndiswrapper device is called wlan0, which means the first wireless networking device on the system. If the ndiswrapper -m step completed correctly, your system knows that the wlan0 device and the ndiswrapper driver are supposed to go together.

Generally, if you have a wireless access point set up, you'd enable getting an IP address assigned via DHCP. If you were going to use a static IP (one you specify, rather than one assigned to you by your wireless router), you'd specify it here. I'm also adding in the ESSID, which is the name of the access point to which I want to connect. If your access point is using encryption, and you have to specify a WEP key, this is the place to do so. It might require trying a few different options until you find the settings that work best with your particular card. If you have any difficulties here, referring back to the ndiswrapper wiki can give you hints about specific options required for your card.
Posted Image

Figure 3. One Step in Setting Up Networking
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Figure 4. Another Step in Setting Up Networking

Potential Problems
It's very difficult to describe a method that will work on every possible Linux distribution. What if these instructions don't work for you? A few minutes spent in troubleshooting and gathering information makes it much more likely that you'll find some help. Your first port of call should always be Google. Try to search for "ndiswrapper SUSE", replacing SUSE with the name of your distribution.

1) Check that the module is loaded: open up a terminal and type in lsmod. This shows you a list of the currently loaded driver modules. Does ndiswrapper appear in this list? If it doesn't, try typing modprobe ndiswrapper and make a note of any errors. No output at all means the module loaded fine.

2) Check that the card is associating with an access point: open up a terminal and type iwconfig as root. You should see some output something like this:

wlan0 IEEE 802.11b ESSID:"internet@home" Nickname:"holly"
Mode:Managed Frequency:2.437 GHz Access Point: 00:12:17:3A:51:E5
Bit Rate=11 Mb/s Tx-Power:20 dBm Sensitivity=0/3
RTS thr=2432 B Fragment thr=2432 B
Encryption key:off
Power Management:off
Link Quality:100/100 Signal level:-72 dBm Noise level:-256 dBm
Rx invalid nwid:0 Rx invalid crypt:0 Rx invalid frag:0
Tx excessive retries:0 Invalid misc:0 Missed beacon:0
If the part after ESSID reads off/any and the part after Access Point is full of 0s, try manually associating. Type iwconfig wlan0 essid Name of your access point here, and see if the lights on your card light up.

3) Check that the card has a valid IP address: open up a terminal and type ifconfig as the root user. Look for the section that says inet addr under the wlan0 section. Do you have a valid IP address there, on the right subnet for your network? If so, try to ping some things on your home network. Try to ping your wireless access point or any other computers to figure out if you have any connectivity at all.

4) Check your default route: open up a terminal and type route -n as the root user. Do you have a line that starts with Under the Gateway column, does it show you the address of your router?

5) Check your DNS: if you can ping local machines by their IP addresses, but you cannot see sites on the Web, it's possible you don't have correct settings for DNS.

If you need to ask for help on forums or mailing lists, listing the results of these steps will make it much easier for people to help you.

Adventurous Users Only!
So, what do you do if your Linux distribution doesn't ship ndiswrapper binaries?

Installing ndiswrapper from sources is always an option if you know your way around a terminal. To do this, you need to have the kernel sources installed and the development packages for your distribution that include the GNU C Compiler and other tools required to compile software. Remember, think twice before you press Enter if you're using the terminal with root permissions.

Download the ndiswrapper sources from the downloads page. Either extract the sources with ark or file-roller or from the command line with:

# tar xjf ndiswrapper-$version.tar.bz2
Replace $version with the version of ndiswrapper you've downloaded. Hint: the terminal can complete commands and filenames for you. Try typing in ndis and then press the Tab key.

Change into the directory you've just extracted:

# cd ndiswrapper-$version
Inside this directory are two files you should at least skim through: INSTALL and README. To compile and install ndiswrapper, issue the command as root:

# make install

Edited by x2p, 26 January 2006 - 08:53 PM.

#3 Sphere


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Posted 09 March 2006 - 02:44 PM

ATI driver installation

Getting the drivers
1. Installation is best done by downloading the installer package version 8.20 or older
2. chmod 777 the package (or just make it executable, I always use 777, I'm lazy))
3. run the package from however you want, but be root user when you do it
4. select "create distribution specific package"
5. Select your distribution and wait until it's done

1. Install the package as you are used to with your distribution's packages

Set up
2. Backup your xorg.conf file by doing:
2.1 start konsole
2.2 go to superuser mode
2.3 go to /etc/X11
2.4 do "cp xorg.conf xorg.conf.bak" or another name you like, but make sure it's recognizable
3. Run "fglrxconfig"
4. Take good care of your selections, like mouse and keyboard, but also that the internal AGPGART is NOT used
5. let it write a new xorg.conf file, this will overwrite your old one, but that's not a problem since you backed up.
6. check xorg.conf.bak and xorg.conf, compare, and make sure that all things are set up correctly. Don't touch the part with the VGA driver set-up though, except if you notice an error, like with the internal AGPGART
7. make sure that composite is NOT enabled, for ATI, you have to choose between performance or well... no performance. ATI doesn't support the composite extension yet.

Applying and testing changes
1. do "init 3"
2. you get back into non-graphical area, log in as root
3. do "init 5"
4 after loading KDE (or gnome if you use that) do "fglrxinfo" it should state the ATI drivers are the used drivers.
5. See the performance increase of your card through "glxgears" and "fgl_glxgears"

Well... that's it! that should work.

After all this, you might want to download the latest ATI drivers. The later ATI drivers do not have the fglrxconfig application anymore. Which I prefer because it does the job, the new aticonfig doesn't.

Basic compilation sequence

Compiling a program from source ain't that hard!
You can either get yourself Kinstaller (for KDE), which will do the job for you, or do it yourself. There are some things to keep in mind then.

Untar the source file:
.tar.gz files:
#tar -zxvf filenamehere.tar.gz
.tar.bz2 files:
#bunzip2 filenamehere.tar.bz2
That will leave you with a .tar file
#tar -xvf filenamehere.tar

Then cd into the unpacked source code directory
here you do:
#./configure --prefix=/opt/kde3
(Where /opt/kde3 the location of (in this case) your KDE is)
After that's completed succesfully you can start compiling, installing and cleaning up.
{enter password}
#make; make install; make clean &

The & makes sure that you don't see what happens unless it goes wrong. remove the & to see what all is going on in your computer.

#4 x2p


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Posted 27 March 2006 - 11:05 PM

#1: Download your Install CD ISO's

ISO's are CD/DVD images. In this case, the ISO's are the images for Fedora Core 5 installation.
You will see 4 folders. Don't panic -- They represent the different architectures for computers
Basically, a computing architecture is the style in which your processor -- or the brain of your computer -- does it's thinking. Each architecture needs a different style of instructions, so we have 4 versions of Fedora Core.
- If you're using a Macintosh or Apple computer, you're "ppc". (The new intel-breed will be "i386", though)
- If you have a AMD Athlon 64 you're "x86_64"
- Anything else, meaning any Pentium or a non-athlon 64 AMD you're "i386"
- Please do not click "source" (Or SRPMS for that matter) as they are the source distribution only used by developers.
Click on the corresponding directory (This is the official term for "folder"), and then go into the "iso" directory.
You'll need all 5 CD images, or the single DVD image. Obviously, you can't use the DVD image if you don't have a DVD burner.
--> If you're choosing the 5 CD images, then download the FC-5-$ARCH$-disc1.iso all the way to FC-5-ARCH-disc5.iso, where $ARCH$ is your type. In my case, I'm using a Pentium 4 processor, so therefore my architecture is i386. I'd have to download:
FC-5-i386-disc1.iso, FC-5-i386-disc2.iso FC-5-i386-disc3.iso FC-5-i386-disc4.iso, and FC-5-i386-disc5.iso
--> If you're using the DVD image, then download the FC-5-$ARCH$-DVD.iso, where $ARCH$ is your type. (Not to sound like a broken record, but...) In my case, I'm using a Pentium 4 processor, so therefore my architecture is i386. I'd have to download:

#2: Burn the ISOs

Next, let's burn these newly aquired ISO images. Please note that you can't just put the file into a data CD: You'll need to burn it as a "CD Image". If you don't have a retail CD burning application that can do so, then see this page:
I've never used it but it should work.

Alright, so now you have 5 CDs labeled 1 through 5, or a single DVD. In most cases, I'm assuming you need to resize your partitions.

You see, you can't install Linux on your Windows free space. Partitions is sort-of like slicing a pie. You can't make two pies from one piece -- The crust is the same but the good-tasting part at the bottom would get mixed together and not taste so good. Linux needs it's own piece as much as Windows does so they can reside in peace, you can't mash them together. To keep Windows alive on your drive, you have to resize your partition, leaving unpartitioned space for Linux. This, essentially, is still "free space", it's just now Windows isn't hogging it.

So, moving on. You're going to need a partitioner. There are commercial ones like Partition Magic, but not all of us are willing to drive to Future Shop and pay 50$ for a copy. A free clone, QTparted, works just as well and, to make it better, it's free off
The PPC version isn't quite stable yet, but it works really well for x86. (x86 is compatible with x86_64, too.) Download that ISO, and same process, burn it as an image.
I've never tried it, I will A.S.A.P. but I'm nearly 100% sure that this LiveCD, gparted, will be MUCH easier to use.

#3: Booting up

The next, and the almost final step: Resizing and installing Linux. Insert the SysRescCD (or gparted LiveCD) into your first cdrom drive if you have 2, other wise just pop it in and (re)start the computer.
You should see the SysRescCD boot prompt (A line waiting for you to type text); If not please see the step below.
--> BIOS (Basic Input Output System) is a system that runs the basics of you system at bootup. It also control where you system boots from. Because, this time, we want to start from the CD, you'll have to enter it and change the boot order. It depends on which brand the key needed to enter, but common ones are:
- F12
- F2
- F10
- Delete (Not to be confused with backspace: this is the delete key closer to the numpad...)
- Esc
You usally are given a short amount of time at startup to press the key: keep trying and rebooting until you get it. Uusally, once you're in the BIOS, <enter> selects, <+>, <->, <up> or <down> changes values, and <esc> goes back. Enter the boot order and make CDROM come before Hard Drive.
OK, so you now are at the boot prompt. Please type

fb 1024x768

and then hit <enter>.
You will see Linux start up, and eventually get to another prompt. Then, type


<enter>, and hit 0 <enter> for autodetect mouse.
Right-click your NTFS partition, you should see it come up on Primary drive 1 (/dev/hda). Click Resize.
Now, it's up to you by how much, but personally, a nice install is around 2 GB, plus i'd say another 2 - 5 GB for documents, and I like room for expansion, so I'd say make at least 10Gb unpartitioned space for Linux. I recommend 40GB, as that leaves plenty of room for future application installs, and plus tons of music and video downloads
When you're done, quit QTParted and then type


<enter> to reboot your system. Insert Fedora Core install CD1 or the DVD and away you go Notes to remember:
- I like to say "Custom" install, that way you can see what you'd like to install on your new Linux system.
- When that time comes and Fedora asks for partitioning type, tell it to use remaining free space.
- When you reboot, you won't be able to get into Windows. Don't worry, we fix that in the next step.

4) Configuring Fedora
--> Personally, I find Fedora's default theme very ugly. In the menu, select
[Menu] Desktop > Preferences > Theme
Click on "Clearlooks", then on "Theme Details". Under the "Icons" tab, select "Bluecurve" from the list. It's icons are MUCH better looking. Click "Close" and all will be well.

--> For those Windows shortcut lovers, in the same menu (Desktop > Preferences > Theme) "Keyboard Shortcuts" can be set to have "Super_L" (The Windows Logo key) the menu pop up as it would make the "Start" pop up back in windows.
By the way, I never understood why Micro$oft named their menu it "Start" I don't wanna "start" when shutting down my computer lol

--> Often around the forum you will here of Terminals. A terminal is simply a window that has the CLI -- Command Line Interface. It is much harder to use, but once you learn it it gives much more control over what goes on. You can access it by
[menu] Application > Accessories > Terminal

--> Along with the terminal, you will hear alot about root. Root is a special account on Linux systems that have full and unrestricted access to everything. This is why it's NOT a good idea to run your system as root; Create another user for you and you can use this command in a terminal to become root:

su - enter password

--> Simple Linux CLI commands / tips:
cd: Change Directory. In Linux, the / is like C:\ in Windows. So, /home/admin you mean "The directory admin, in the directory home, which is in the root of the drive, or /."
ls: List files in the directory
"quotes make spaces ánd àccênts possible": When using spaces, accents, or other special characters in names, wrap it in quotes. Eg:

cd /home/"my fólder wîth spàcés ând special characters"

--> Configure Windows XP:
GRUB is the bootloader for Linux, meaning that it's the bit of software that starts your Linux system. It, although, can also be configured to boot Windows. Here's how: (In a terminal, as root)
gedit /etc/grub.conf
Add these lines to the bottom:

title Windows rootnoverify (hd0,0) chainloader +1

This should work for most people. If you're Windows XP partitions isn't the first, then try changing the (hd0,0) to (hd0,1), and so on. Don't go past 8. If it still doesn't work then just post and we'll see how we can help

Questions concerning this guide can be asked in the thread following this link

#5 error51


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Posted 01 April 2006 - 05:57 AM

Thanks a bunch for the guide update. I'm hoping to get a new laptop this spring so maybe I'll try this guide out once I have two reliable computers. The last time I installed Linux it screwed up my computer which meant that I had to stay up all night reinstalling Windows and getting my computer ready for work and school. With any luck the guide will help me out.

Edited by xCIAx, 01 April 2006 - 05:59 AM.

#6 Linoman


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Posted 01 April 2006 - 07:54 AM

Brillent faq's going on here. Although I think we should split each on of this guides into individual guides. I think that because how will a new linux user know or expect install in a faq.

#7 x2p


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Posted 03 April 2006 - 08:18 PM

This Guide Is Written By The Good Folks From Senior Editor Team @
Reallylinux.com So Credit Is Due

Posted Image
Linux In a Windows Network with SAMBA
by Mark Rais, Senior Editor ReallyLinux.com and author of "Linux for the Rest of Us" 2nd Edition.

Integrating Fedora Linux into a Windows network is reasonable and easy as long as you use the SAMBA utilities. I share every main step necessary to implement such a SAMBA server within a Windows environment. Once integrated a Linux server looks and acts exactly like any other server on a Windows intranet. You will have the ability to drag and drop files, view server contents and directories using Windows File Manager, and even edit files on a Linux server from any Windows desktop.

This article is a guide to setting up a full fledged FEDORA LINUX/SAMBA server. If you need basic steps for connecting Linux with Windows please read my article Windows to Linux: Basic Networking. If you're a system administrator and are planning to integrate the Linux server into your AD server environment, I'm sorry I do not go into details how to configure smb.conf for ADS usernames, although it can be done. I will walk you through the main steps for installing a SAMBA Server. This, in my opinion, is the first part to any future more advanced integration.

First, you must allow the Linux server full rights and access to the Windows workgroup and local domain. That means that either in your Active Server environment you need to reserve an IP address for the Linux server, or you simply need to ensure a hard coded IP address is given to the Linux server. The server must have a reserved IP address whether you deliver it via DHCP or statically assign it in the DNS. This also means that you need to ALLOW SMB DAEMON to operate. You can ensure your system security does this by editing your Firewall setup or using system-config-securitylevel .

Second, you must ensure that SAMBA (SAMBA tools and the SMB protocol) is installed and running on the Linux server. Most versions of Fedora come with the necessary packages. You should also be sure to update your SAMBA security levels properly if you are having trouble accessing a shared directory. This is found under Samba Server Configuration tool, main menu Properties, option Server Settings, and then the tab: Security.

Now you are ready to configure your Fedora Linux/SAMBA machine... aka. SAMBA Server.

STEP 1: Enable Network Connectivity to the SAMBA Server

Using the Fedora Network Configuration tool you will need to ensure that the ethernet card is enabled and properly functioning. Get quick access to the tool through this command: system-config-network

Once in the Network Configuration tool, you should ensure that your ethernet device is enabled. If it is not, select the eth device and then click on the Edit button. This will allow you to input the vital network adapter settings including: statically set IP address, subnet mask, and gateway. You should also select the top checkbox labeled Activate device when computer starts. Read this article for more details regarding configuring a network card in Fedora, Mandrake, or SuSE.

Close and save any changes you've made. The main goal is to ensure you have an ACTIVE and functioning network card on the SAMBA server.

Restart the network services or simply reboot your SAMBA server. Now try a ping to the server from another PC on the same subnet. At a command prompt, for example, type: ping

The ping should come back good validating your network connection. If you need more Linux system administration help read my Admin Commands List.

STEP 2: Update Firewall Settings

In most cases the default Firewall setting on the SAMBA server locks out any inbound network requests. I've had a great many people come running to me about this issue. If you're setting up a basic SAMBA server within your business intranet, allow your ethernet connection to be a trusted device so others can get to your SAMBA server and not be bounced by the server's Firewall.

NOTICE: if you plan to use the SAMBA server outside of your business firewall/intranet you should NOT follow the next step. Instead you allow your local server to receive packets by making changes to your IPTABLES, such as:
iptables -A INPUT -s -j ACCEPT
The following step is for those using an intranet business server configuration.

Okay, now to allow your intranet based SAMBA server to properly accept incoming requests, from your Main menu choose System Settings, then Security Level. You can access this also by typing the command:

Please select the box next to the ethernet card you are using for intranet connectivity so that it becomes a TRUSTED DEVICE. Otherwise you have a super secure server that bounces inbound requests. Notice, this selection effects all the items in the Services listing above it, so please be careful in what context you allow a trusted device!

Press OK when finished.

STEP 3: Enable SMB Services

Ironically, the SMB daemon and other core services are usually NOT started by default. You will need to change this so that your SMB daemon is now started.

Using the GUI from the main menu, go to System Settings, then Server Settings, then choose Services. You can also get to this using the command: system-config-services

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While you're looking over this long list of services, please DISABLE things you know for sure you do not need to run on this SAMBA server. For instance apmd, isdn, etc. But also ensure that key services such as SMB are selected and RUNNING. Select SMB and press the Start button. If it is supposedly already running you can press the Restart button to be sure it is indeed running correctly now.

Now press the Save button to make sure the configuration changes have been saved for future restarts.

Sometimes using the GUI just does not properly restart the SMB daemon. In such odd cases, I want to suggest you force a manual restart from the command line with this command: /etc/rc.d/init.d/smb restart

If you keep having startup failures, where for every reboot you need to perform Step 3, you may need to manually configure your start up processes so that SMB will always be in the init.d bootup. Okay, if that sounded ridiculously confusing then how about just going to my article on manually starting services and configurations.

STEP 4: Create Server Users & Directories

You will need to ensure that people also have a login to the SAMBA server to do their work. Logins should be provided on an as needed basis. Obviously, in most cases the users accessing the SAMBA server will be a subset of the total users on the Windows business network.

Create user logins with the Gnome User Manager tool in Fedora. You can find this from the main menu by choosing System Settings, then Users & Groups. The command for this is: system-config-users

Notice this is the first step in creating SAMBA users, which comes later.

Add as many users as you need and then move on to the next part, which is creating directories (aka. folders) for use.

This is such an obvious step most people usually forget to think about it before hand. However, it is very helpful to think ahead what directories you will allow access to on the SAMBA Server for business use. In my case the people needing SAMBA server access will be updating webpages. Therefore, I do not need to add any other folders for file sharing or group interaction. Be sure you add any folders in a reasonable and ordered fashion.

A big TIP for those who are not aware, the permissions settings for your folders are very important. If you have no idea how to change permissions, then you may want to review this article on Linux filemanagement and permissions.

STEP 5: Configure the SAMBA Server

It's time to configure your SAMBA server to allow others on the intranet to login and use the server from Windows or Linux PCs.

From the main Fedora menu, choose System Settings, then Server Settings, then Samba. You can also get to this tool by typing the command: system-config-samba

You are about to make changes to the SAMBA Configuration file called smb.conf. This file is found under /etc/samba. If you encounter issues you may want to first start by using my example smb.conf file and then make the changes below. I also want you to be aware that you can edit configuration files with the web interface tool called Samba Web Administration Tool(SWAT) and several others. Now lets move ahead using the Configuration tool using the preloaded Fedora tools. NOTICE that many people begin by tinkering with their .conf file... this is NOT a good idea. First ensure that the basic samba connectivity works and THEN you can tinker with the smb.conf! (see troubleshooting below)

A. Begin by Making Changes to the Server Settings

Under the Preference menu item choose Server Settings...

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Be sure to include the Windows workgroup name. In the example above the workgroup has been changed to net. Your situation may be different. In many cases naming the workgroup simply workgroup is fine, so long as your Windows PCs connect to this same name.

Under this same window, click on the Security tab. It comes by default with the appropriate settings for a basic SAMBA Server. The Authentication mode should be User. You would need to change this only if you plan to allow logins based on the Microsoft ADS.

Press OK to finish making basic changes to the server.

B. Select SAMBA Users

Under the Preference menu item choose Samba Users

In this window you must Add at least one user who will have access to the SAMBA Server. Notice that only user accounts you created in step 4 should be added to this listing.

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Press the Add User button, then from the pull down select a user. Fill out the additional information needed for this SAMBA user. Press OK when finished.

C. Adding A Shared Folder

Under the SAMBA Server Configuration window, you must create at least one SAMBA share directory.

Press the Add button and then the Browse button. Now choose a folder you wish to make available to SAMBA users. Be careful, some folders have permissions settings that do not allow sharing. Now be sure to select the Read/Write option to allow people full access. Don't press OK yet!

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You should see your shared folder appear under the listing as shown in the example above.

D. Adding Users

In the same window, select the second tab labeled Access. From here choose the first option labeled Only allow access to specific users and select the users you wish to give access to this specific SAMBA shared folder. Press OK when finished.

You can repeat steps C and D for each new shared folder.

Once completed, please choose File from the menu then choose Quit.

Hopefully this saved all of your settings properly. If you encounter issues with the graphic SAMBA configuration tool, such as it failing to accept your changes, then please read the Troubleshooting Tip 4 located below.

STEP 6: Restart the SAMBA Services

Now you need to restart all SAMBA services. You can use the process found in Step 3, except press the Restart button or use the word restart instead of the word start.

I mentioned earlier that sometimes your changes do not get properly picked up. I've installed so many different Fedora SAMBA configurations that I can't recall every reason. This may be a very good time to simply reboot the LINUX/SAMBA Server. Rebooting will ensure everything gets properly started up and all of the configuration changes are included. More importantly, this is likely the last time you will ever restart your SAMBA server again. Some of my FEDORA servers haven't been restarted in years.

STEP 7: Access the SAMBA Server from Windows

You're now ready to fully utilize your new intranet SAMBA Server for work. On any Windows PC you can access the server by simply going to the main Start menu, choosing Run and typing in the hostname of your SAMBA server. For example: \\linuxserver

Please notice that in the Windows environment you use different slashes and you need to ensure this syntax.

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If this does not work, perhaps if the server is not yet included in your DNS, try accessing the SAMBA Server through its IP address: \\

Obviously you need to use an actual hostname or IP address and not my example.

If all works well you should instantly see a SERVER LOGIN window. Now login using a SAMBA created username
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You should then instantly see the shared folder as well as the individual user's personal folder that exist on the SAMBA Server.

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Congratulations, you're done.

NOTICE: I've had a number of people who encountered issues because they seriously screwed with their smb.conf file or forgot to update their Samba Server Security settings found under the Server Setup, Security tab. Please, please, before you start tinkering with your smb.conf file try to use the BASIC samba settings to ensure you ACTUALLY CAN CONNECT properly. Then when you make changes you can far better identify what goes wrong. Following the steps above should work in almost every situation IF you first start with the basic configuration.

1. SAMBA Server is not accessible

First and foremost try a reboot to the server itself! It is vital you do this before someone talks you into changing configs, playing with your network card settings etc. Just reboot and try again to see if it clears up the issue.

2. Network Unreachable or Host Unreachable From Linux PCs

Trying to connect from another Linux PC and nothing happens or "network unreachable" may be as ridiculous as an incorrect SAMBA connection. Make absolutely certain that the connection is typed in exactly as follows (obviously changing the workgroup name to your windows workgroup): smb://WORKGROUP

On some KDE desktops, attempts failed because the syntax incorrectly tries: smb:/workgroup Those // are quite important!

3. Failure to Connect from Windows PCs

Not connecting to the server from Windows PCs may be a result of bad network configuration. Are you absolutely certain you entered the correct network details? Please double check to make sure that you have a proper hostname for the Samba server, that you have a working IP address, and the correct Subnet and Gateway included. In most cases these last two should simply match what your windows PCs have designated.

4. Changes to the configuration are not being picked up

The Gnome SAMBA Configuration GUI often encounters errors when trying to update new SAMBA settings. I've seen the GUI tool write a whole lot of garbage into the SAMBA configuration file (smb.conf). For this reason, as I mentioned earlier, you may need to start with a fresh clean smb.conf file (copy my example into a text editor) and try again, or you may need to manually adjust settings without the GUI.

5. Can't Share Folder in Home Directory

First, it's always a good idea NOT to make a Samba share out of directories inside your Home folder for security reasons. Making unique share folders is often the best bet. However, there are times when you need to share a folder and the way to do so is to update your Samba Share's security settings. Under the Samba Configuration, highlight your shared directory and press Properties. Here you can see the "Basic Permissions" list and usually the default is "Read Only." Select the "Read/Write" option and be sure to save your changes by quitting and then restarting the smb daemon. If this doesn't resolve the issue of directory shares, you may have a more fundamental security issue. You need to ensure that the over all Samba security settings under "Preferences", then "System Settings" and then the Security tab are correct.

For further troubleshooting these two webpages may be helpful as well:

Samba Tech Doc

Samba Troubleshooting: Unknown User


If you must edit the smb.conf file here are a few pointers:

1. Find your smb.conf file

The smb.conf file contains the key elements for configuring your SAMBA server. It is almost always located in the directory /etc/samba and so you get to it with the command: cd /etc/samba

2. Edit the smb.conf file

First use this command to make a backup of your file: cp smb.conf smb.conf.backup

3. Now edit the smb.conf file using your favorite text editor.

One of the most important lines is this:

# workgroup = NT-Domain-Name or Workgroup-Name

workgroup = workgroup

Be sure that the workgroup matches the Windows workgroup you want this server in. In the example it is set to “workgroup”.

If you're editing this file to allow for WindowsNT or ADS usernames, be sure next to wins server you specify the correct LINUX server IP address:

wins server =

The Share Definitions section is MOST VITAL. Under this section you must at least ensure that the username file is mapped correctly. In the basic example I am writing about you will map to the standard SAMBA username file.

username map = /etc/samba/smbusers

Notice that I've removed the ; so this parameter is actually used.

Now test that every change you've made at least passes the parameter test. At the command prompt type:


You should see zero errors.

4. Don't forget once you edit the smb.conf file you either need to run the command:

/etc/rc.d/init.d/smb restart

or you can simply reboot the server. But please do one of these or your changes will not get picked up!

If you run into problems or this part fails, download this example smb.conf file or restore your .backup file and try again.


Maybe at this point you're in dire need to figure out how to use the SAME exact logins/password for users on the LINUX/SAMBA server as in the rest of your ADS environment. I promised I would avoid the details of this but here are some helpful tips. In the smb.conf file you will need to add the obvious configuration lines for ADS, but also be sure to change this line:
unix password sync = yes
This is vital!


Edited by x2p, 13 April 2006 - 07:17 PM.

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